Slovenia-born Bedene was unable to back up his first-round victory over Radek Stepanek, with 22nd seed Troicki prevailing 6-4 3-6 6-2 6-4.
Victories for James Ward and Andy Murray handed Britain two men in Wimbledon’s third round for the first time since 2002 on Thursday, but newly-minted Brit Bedene could not follow suit.
In 1999, Tim Henman, Greg Rusedski and Danny Sapsford all reached the third round.
Bedene revelled in his first-ever Wimbledon victory over veteran Czech battler Stepanek, edging past the 36-year-old in five sets, clearly buoyed by the fervent home support.
There was to be no such repeat against Troicki though, who may not have been able to move past Andy Murray in the Queen’s Club semi-finals, but was a comfortable winner at SW19.
Ward’s victory over Jiri Vesely and a routine win for Murray over Robin Haase ensured Britain boasts two men in Wimbledon’s third round for the first time since 2002.
The likeable Bedene remains locked in his bid to overturn the International Tennis Federation’s (ITF) decision to block him representing Britain in Davis Cup action.
Bedene has previously represented Slovenia in tennis’ top team competition, and the ITF recently changed its rules regarding switching allegiance.
The Lawn Tennis Association (LTA) has supported Bedene’s nationality switch, but he remains ineligible for Britain’s Davis Cup quarter-final clash with France later this month.
The 25-year-old has doubtless been keen to win hearts and minds at Wimbledon this week, and certainly gained many plaudits for his first-round victory.
Even though he was unable to repeat that feat against Troicki, the world number 75 can be proud of his SW19 effort.