The 32-year-old defender was due to be a free agent this summer and had reportedly stalled on signing a new deal.
That led to speculation that he could be on the move, with Manchester United, AC Milan and Paris Saint-Germain as potential destinations.
However, the Brazilian has now committed his future to Barca by signing a deal until 2017, with an option for a further year.
The announcement comes on the same day that Pedro and Jordi Alba penned new long-term contracts and just 24 hours after Aleix Vidal signed from Sevilla.
Alves also joined Barcelona from Sevilla in 2008 and has since played 343 matches, winning 19 titles, including La Liga five times and the Champions League on three occasions.