Middlebrook, who will be 38 next month, began his 16-year first-class career with his native county and stayed at Headingley until 2001 before retiring from professional cricket after being released by relegated Northamptonshire last summer.
Yorkshire are without their first-choice spinner Adil Rashid, who is on duty with England in the West Indies alongside five other players supplied by the county champions.
And after having a request for Rashid to return home early turned down by England, Yorkshire have plucked Middlebrook back out of Bradford League cricket and put him straight into their 12-man squad to face Warwickshire on Sunday.
Yorkshire coach Jason Gillespie said: “With our first-choice spinner Adil Rashid in the Caribbean with England, we felt we had to look at an option to fill that void.
“Karl Carver has been in our squad this season, and we have been pleased with his development over the past 12 months. However, at this point in time, we feel he is best served learning his trade in the second team.
“James Middlebrook was available, having been released by Northamptonshire last season. The fact that he is based in Leeds, playing in the Bradford League, we felt that with his experience he could come in and do a job for us in the short term.
“James will play for his club, New Farnley, on Saturday and will more than likely make his debut for us on Sunday against Warwickshire.”
Middlebrook added: “It has been surreal. I wasn’t expecting a call to come and play first-class cricket again, and to
get the call from Yorkshire was a shock.??
“I’m excited and looking forward to my second debut with the club.”