Patterson took a career-best five for 11 as the White Rose – with six players on England duty, skipper Andrew Gale suspended and Ryan Sidebottom unable to bowl on day three due to injury – skittled out the hosts for just 100 before young opening duo Alex Lees and Will Rhodes eased them to a 10-wicket win.
Sidebottom was able to bat on Tuesday – ending 14 not out as Yorkshire added nine runs to their overnight score before Tim Bresnan fell to Gareth Andrew for 83 as the visitors were dismissed for 307.
But Yorkshire’s attack was not blunted as Patterson was backed up superbly by Jack Brooks, who took four for 28 and dismissed Moeen Ali for just four.
Worcestershire barely reached three figures as they failed to take advantage of their slim first-innings lead and it took Yorkshire just 17 overs to knock off the required 105 runs for victory.
Stand-in captain Lees, on his 22nd birthday, struck his second half-century of the match while Rhodes contributed 45 to earn their side 22 points.
Durham, champions in 2013, also completed a three-day victory, beating Somerset by seven wickets at Taunton.
Chris Rushworth celebrated a 200th first-class wicket on his way to figures of six for 2 as Somerset were dismissed for 230.
Rushworth struck with just the ninth ball of the morning to oust Alex Barrow and also accounted for Jim Allenby and Lewis Gregory before John Hastings removed Tim Groenewald to leave the hosts reeling on 96 for eight.
It was only thanks to 99-run ninth-wicket partnership from Peter Trego (79) and Abdur Rehman (55 not out) that took Somerset to a respectable 230.
But the visitors lost just three wickets on their way to their victory target of 150, with England international Scott Borthwick backing up his first-innings 94 with an unbeaten 51.
Hampshire kept their game with Surrey alive with a fine all-round display at the Ageas Bowl.
The hosts could only add 11 runs to their overnight 220 for nine but Sussex skipper Ed Joyce chose not to enforce the follow-on and may have been regretting that decision after his side were reduced to 71 for six, with James Tomlinson taking four wickets.
A stand of 73 from Luke Wright (61) and Ajmal Shahzad (28) helped Sussex reach 164 all out and set a target of 378, but Michael Carberry smashed 79 off 86 balls before falling to Michael Yardy.
Hampshire, 181 for four at the close, need another 197 on the final day, while Sussex require six wickets.
Nottinghamshire need nine wickets on day four at Lord’s, with Middlesex chasing an unlikely 519.
James Taylor struck 61 for the visitors before skipper Chris Read recorded a blistering century off just 76 balls and then declared with his team 401 for eight.
Middlesex then lost Sam Robson without scoring in response before Nick Compton and Nick Gubbins guided the hosts to 57 for one at stumps.
In Division Two, Northamptonshire need 10 wickets on the final day if they are to begin their bid for an immediate return to Division One with a victory.
David Willey’s maiden first-class hundred, which included six sixes and took just 79 balls, saw Northants post 416 for eight in their second innings, giving them a lead of 453 runs over Gloucestershire.
Chris Dent and Will Tavere survived 15 overs before the close and will resume Wednesday morning with their side 35 without loss.
In the other game in the second tier, Leicestershire and Glamorgan appear to be heading towards a draw at Grace Road.
Despite two wickets from Charlie Shreck in the evening session helping reduce Glamorgan to 47 for three, the visitors enjoy a 125-run lead heading into the final day.
Ned Eckersley turned his overnight 81 into 147 for Leicestershire, but Niall O’Brien was left stranded on 70 after his side lost their last four wickets for 24 runs to concede a first-innings deficit of 78.