The Warwickshire batsman has been included in a 16-man party along with three uncapped players – Yorkshire’s Lyth and Adil Rashid, and Durham seam bowler Wood.
Trott has not played for England since a stress-related illness saw him leave the 2013/14 Ashes tour after just one Test.
But he successfully captained the England Lions in South Africa over the winter, scoring a double hundred in one of two unofficial ‘Tests’, and his return gives England options at the top of their batting order.
That also applies to the inclusion of Lyth, a left-handed opening batsman whose runs helped Yorkshire win last season’s County Championship.
The domestic champions provide six squad members in total as leg-spinning all-rounder Rashid is named alongside fast bowler Liam Plunkett, batsmen Gary Ballance and Joe Root and reserve wicket-keeper Jonny Bairstow.
Chris Woakes and Moeen Ali miss out through injury, but both are expected to be fit for the home series against New Zealand in May and Ali could yet be added to the touring party if his side strain heals in time.
There is no place for James Taylor, the Nottinghamshire batsman whose performances were a rare highlight of the one-day side’s poor winter, nor last summer’s opener Sam Robson.
But Ben Stokes is recalled after missing out on World Cup selection, and Alastair Cook resumes his Test captaincy after his 11th-hour removal as one-day captain.
National selector James Whitaker said: “This series marks the start of a busy period of Test match cricket for the England team, and I am sure that Alastair and the players will all be keen to build on the success they enjoyed last summer against India.
“Jonathan Trott produced some outstanding performances for Warwickshire last summer, scoring five centuries, and also made an unbeaten double hundred during the recent successful England Lions tour. He is a player of proven international pedigree and we are delighted to welcome him back into the squad.
“Adam, Adil and Mark are all players who have performed impressively over the last 12 months, and they will now have an opportunity to push for a regular place in the Test side???s starting line-up.”
England squad: Cook, Anderson, Bairstow, Ballance, Bell, Broad, Buttler, Jordan, Lyth, Plunkett, Root, Rashid, Stokes, Tredwell, Trott, Wood.